Page 19 of MAKROKOSMOS, VOL. I by George Crumb. They go by many different names — graphic scores, Augenmusik (eye music), visual notation and others. I prefer the phrase “ergodic notation,” which I derive from the game and literary theorist Espen J. Aarseth’s phrase “ergodic literature.” These are writings that require some amount of effort to read beyond simply moving one’s eyes and flipping pages. Ergodic notation is not new.