Oscar Bluemner (1867-1938) was a German-born American Modernist painter. In 1903, he created the winning design for the Bronx Borough Courthouse although it is credited to Michael J. Garvin. The scandal took down borough president Louis Haffen for corruption and fraud. He exhibited in the 1913 Armory Show. Then in 1915 Stieglitz gave him a solo exhibition at his gallery, 291. Despite participating in several exhibitions & solo shows, for the next 10 years financially unsuccessfully.